Artificial Intelligence Healthcare ((NEW))
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Diagnostic errors affect more than 12 million Americans each year, with aggregate costs likely in excess of $100 billion, according to a report by the Society to Improve Diagnosis in Medicine. ML, a subfield of artificial intelligence, has emerged as a powerful tool for solving complex problems in diverse domains, including medical diagnostics. However, challenges to the development and use of machine learning technologies in medical diagnostics raise technological, economic, and regulatory questions.
The most complex forms of machine learning involve deep learning, or neural network models with many levels of features or variables that predict outcomes. There may be thousands of hidden features in such models, which are uncovered by the faster processing of today's graphics processing units and cloud architectures. A common application of deep learning in healthcare is recognition of potentially cancerous lesions in radiology images.4 Deep learning is increasingly being applied to radiomics, or the detection of clinically relevant features in imaging data beyond what can be perceived by the human eye.5 Both radiomics and deep learning are most commonly found in oncology-oriented image analysis. Their combination appears to promise greater accuracy in diagnosis than the previous generation of automated tools for image analysis, known as computer-aided detection or CAD.
In a survey of more than 300 clinical leaders and healthcare executives, more than 70% of the respondents reported having less than 50% of their patients highly engaged and 42% of respondents said less than 25% of their patients were highly engaged.21
Some healthcare organisations have also experimented with chatbots for patient interaction, mental health and wellness, and telehealth. These NLP-based applications may be useful for simple transactions like refilling prescriptions or making appointments. However, in a survey of 500 US users of the top five chatbots used in healthcare, patients expressed concern about revealing confidential information, discussing complex health conditions and poor usability.25
To our knowledge thus far there have been no jobs eliminated by AI in health care. The limited incursion of AI into the industry thus far, and the difficulty of integrating AI into clinical workflows and EHR systems, have been somewhat responsible for the lack of job impact. It seems likely that the healthcare jobs most likely to be automated would be those that involve dealing with digital information, radiology and pathology for example, rather than those with direct patient contact.28
Mistakes will undoubtedly be made by AI systems in patient diagnosis and treatment and it may be difficult to establish accountability for them. There are also likely to be incidents in which patients receive medical information from AI systems that they would prefer to receive from an empathetic clinician. Machine learning systems in healthcare may also be subject to algorithmic bias, perhaps predicting greater likelihood of disease on the basis of gender or race when those are not actually causal factors.30
The greatest challenge to AI in these healthcare domains is not whether the technologies will be capable enough to be useful, but rather ensuring their adoption in daily clinical practice. For widespread adoption to take place, AI systems must be approved by regulators, integrated with EHR systems, standardised to a sufficient degree that similar products work in a similar fashion, taught to clinicians, paid for by public or private payer organisations and updated over time in the field. These challenges will ultimately be overcome, but they will take much longer to do so than it will take for the technologies themselves to mature. As a result, we expect to see limited use of AI in clinical practice within 5 years and more extensive use within 10.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is gradually changing medical practice. With recent progress in digitized data acquisition, machine learning and computing infrastructure, AI applications are expanding into areas that were previously thought to be only the province of human experts. In this Review Article, we outline recent breakthroughs in AI technologies and their biomedical applications, identify the challenges for further progress in medical AI systems, and summarize the economic, legal and social implications of AI in healthcare.
Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning solutions are transforming the way healthcare is being delivered. Health organizations have accumulated vast data sets in the form of health records and images, population data, claims data and clinical trial data. AI technologies are well suited to analyze this data and uncover patterns and insights that humans could not find on their own. With deep learning from AI, healthcare organizations can use algorithms to help them make better business and clinical decisions and improve the quality of the experiences they provide.
By examining data patterns, AI technologies can help healthcare organizations make the most of their data, assets and resources, increasing efficiency and improving performance of clinical and operational workflows, processes, and financial operations.
By supplementing labor-intensive image scanning and case triage, AI solutions used in medical imaging enable cardiologists and radiologists by surfacing relevant insights that can help them identify critical cases first, make more accurate diagnoses and potentially avoid errors while taking advantage of the breadth and complexity of electronic health records. A typical clinical study can produce vast datasets containing thousands of images, leading to incredible amounts of data in need of review. Using AI algorithms, studies from across the healthcare industry can be analyzed for patterns and hidden relationships, which can help imaging professionals find critical information fast.
The healthcare IT industry has a responsibility to create systems that help ensure fairness and equality in data science and clinical studies, which leads to optimal health outcomes for everyone. AI and machine learning algorithms can be trained to help reduce or eliminate bias by promoting data diversity and transparency to help address health inequities. For example, minimizing bias in healthcare research can help combat health outcome disparities based on gender, race, ethnicity or income level.
There are challenges to adopting AI in healthcare, including having to meet regulatory requirements and overcoming trust issues with machine learning results. Despite these challenges, bringing AI and machine learning to the healthcare industry has brought numerous benefits to healthcare organizations and those they serve alike. AI improves operations by streamlining workflows and helping with mundane tasks, as well as by helping users to quickly find answers to their pressing questions, leading to better experiences for patients, members, citizens and consumers.
Healthcare environments have enormous datasets to be leveraged, and its time to put this data to work where AI and machine learning methods that are intelligently integrated into workflows will improve healthcare delivery of all stakeholders.
AI can add value by either automating or augmenting the work of clinicians and staff. Many repetitive tasks will be fully automated, and AI will help health professionals perform better at their jobs and improve outcomes for patients. AI in healthcare provides a many benefits, including automating tasks and analyzing big patient data sets to deliver better healthcare faster, and at a lower cost. According to Insider Intelligence, 30% of healthcare costs are associated with administrative tasks. Finding more efficient ways to modernize our healthcare ecosystems, AI will have a profound impact in creating more efficiencies and breakthroughs that today we can yet imagine.
Artificial intelligence (AI) aims to mimic human cognitive functions. It is bringing a paradigm shift to healthcare, powered by increasing availability of healthcare data and rapid progress of analytics techniques. We survey the current status of AI applications in healthcare and discuss its future. AI can be applied to various types of healthcare data (structured and unstructured). Popular AI techniques include machine learning methods for structured data, such as the classical support vector machine and neural network, and the modern deep learning, as well as natural language processing for unstructured data. Major disease areas that use AI tools include cancer, neurology and cardiology. We then review in more details the AI applications in stroke, in the three major areas of early detection and diagnosis, treatment, as well as outcome prediction and prognosis evaluation. We conclude with discussion about pioneer AI systems, such as IBM Watson, and hurdles for real-life deployment of AI.
In 2019, 11% of American workers were employed in health care, and health care expenditures accounted for over 17% of gross domestic product. U.S. health care spending is higher per capita than other OECD countries.4 If AI technologies have a similar impact on healthcare as in other industries such as retail and financial services, then health care can become more effective and more efficient, improving the daily lives of millions of people.
Artificial intelligence in healthcare is an overarching term used to describe the use of machine-learning algorithms and software, or artificial intelligence (AI), to mimic human cognition in the analysis, presentation, and comprehension of complex medical and health care data.AI = W. Specifically, AI is the ability of computer algorithms to approximate conclusions based solely on input data.
The primary aim of health-related AI applications is to analyze relationships between clinical techniques and patient outcomes. AI programs are applied to practices such as diagnostics, treatment protocol development, drug development, personalized medicine, and patient monitoring and care. What differentiates AI technology from traditional technologies in healthcare is the ability to gather data, process it, and produce a well-defined output to the end-user. AI does this through machine learning algorithms and deep learning. These processes can recognize patterns in behavior and create their own logic. To gain useful insights and predictions, machine learning models must be trained using extensive amounts of input data. AI algorithms behave differently from humans in two ways: (1) algorithms are literal: once a goal is set, the algorithm learns exclusively from the input data and can only understand what it has been programmed to do, (2) and some deep learning algorithms are black boxes; algorithms can predict with extreme precision, but offer little to no comprehensible explanation to the logic behind its decisions aside from the data and type of algorithm used. 2b1af7f3a8