Girl Becomes Woman Pdf
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As a woman ages, her chances of becoming pregnant decreases. Age is becoming a more common factor in female infertility because many couples are waiting to have children until their 30s or 40s. Women over age 35 have a higher risk of having fertility issues. The reasons for this include:
A transgender woman lives as a woman today, but was thought to be male when she was born. A transgender man lives as a man today, but was thought to be female when he was born. Some transgender people identify as neither male nor female, or as a combination of male and female. There are a variety of terms that people who aren't entirely male or entirely female use to describe their gender identity, like non-binary or genderqueer.
It's important to remember that if someone is transgender, it does not necessarily mean that they have a "third gender." Most transgender people do have a gender identity that is either male or female, and they should be treated like any other man or woman.
I am from Britain and think it is right that as a woman I am paid the same as my male counterparts. I think it is right that I should be able to make decisions about my own body. I think it is right that women be involved on my behalf in the policies and decision-making of my country. I think it is right that socially I am afforded the same respect as men. But sadly I can say that there is no one country in the world where all women can expect to receive these rights.
Female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) means piercing, cutting, removing, or sewing closed all or part of a girl's or woman's external genitals for no medical reason. Researchers estimate more than 513,000 girls and women in the U.S. have experienced or are at risk of FGM/C.1 Worldwide, as many as 140 million girls and women alive today have been cut.2 FGM/C is often a part of the culture in countries where it is practiced. But FGM/C has no health benefits and can cause long-term health problems. FGM/C is against the law in the U.S. and many other countries.
Girls and women who live in the countries where FGM/C is practiced most often (PDF, 22.7 MB) have the highest risk. In some countries, only a small number of girls and women are cut. In other countries, nearly all girls and women are cut.2
The specific community or part of the country a girl or woman lives in can increase or decrease her risk of certain types of FGM/C. For example, different ethnic groups may perform different types of FGM/C. Also, how much wealth, education, and the type of education a girl's parents receive may influence their choice to have a daughter cut. Lastly, whether a community is urban or rural can affect the practice of FGM/C.
An estimated 100 to 140 million women alive today have undergone FGM/C. Three million girls and women may be at risk of FGM/C each year.2 The percentage of women who have been cut is very different from country to country. In Indonesia, 86% to 100% of girls and women have been cut.6 In Guinea and Somalia, more than 95% of girls and women have been cut. In Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, and Sierra Leone, it is near 90%. However, in Cameroon and Uganda, less than 2% of girls and women have been cut.
FGM/C can cause long-term problems with a girl's or woman's physical, mental, and sexual health. The type of FGM/C done may affect how much and how serious the health problems are. Type 2 and type 3 cause more serious health problems than type 1.
Girls and women who come to the United States and have already been cut may face additional health problems. Doctors and other health care providers may not know how to adequately treat the girls' and women's unique health needs. In some cases, health care providers lack training on counseling and caring for girls and women who have been cut.9
FGM/C is against the law in the United States. The United States and many other countries consider FGM/C a violation of women's rights and a form of child abuse. Federal law makes it a crime to perform FGM/C on a girl younger than 18 or to take or attempt to take a girl out of the United States for FGM/C. Girls and women who have experienced FGM/C are not at fault and have not broken any U.S. laws.
The United States considers FGM/C to be a serious human rights abuse and a form of gender-based violence and child abuse.18 Many girls have FGM/C forced on them and have no choice about whether it happens. It is painful and offers no health benefits. And FGM/C often causes long-term physical and mental health problems. For these reasons, the U.S. government works with other governments and organizations to help end the practice.
The increasing performance gap between males and females as upper body strength becomes more critical for performance is likely explained to a large extent by the observation that males have disproportionately greater strength in their upper compared to lower body, while females show the inverse [44, 45]. This different distribution of strength compounds the general advantage of increased muscle mass in upper body dominant disciplines. Males also have longer arms than females, which allows greater torque production from the arm lever when, for example, throwing a ball, punching or pushing.
Recently, sexual dimorphism in arm force and power was investigated in a punch motion in moderately-trained individuals . The power produced during a punch was 162% greater in males than in females, and the least powerful man produced more power than the most powerful woman. This highlights that sex differences in parameters such as mass, strength and speed may combine to produce even larger sex differences in sport-specific actions, which often are a product of how various physical capacities combine. For example, power production is the product of force and velocity, and momentum is defined as mass multiplied by velocity. The momentum and kinetic energy that can be transferred to another object, such as during a tackle or punch in collision and combat sports are, therefore, dictated by: the mass; force to accelerate that mass, and; resultant velocity attained by that mass. As there is a male advantage for each of these factors, the net result is likely synergistic in a sport-specific action, such as a tackle or a throw, that widely surpasses the sum of individual magnitudes of advantage in isolated fitness variables. Indeed, already at 17 years of age, the average male throws a ball further than 99% of 17-year-old females , despite no single variable (arm length, muscle mass etc.) reaching this numerical advantage. Similarly, punch power is 162% greater in men than women even though no single parameter that produces punching actions achieves this magnitude of difference .
Based on the following information, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists provides these conclusions and recommendations:Clinicians should educate girls and their caretakers (eg, parents or guardians) about what to expect of a first menstrual period and the range for normal cycle length of subsequent menses.
It is important for clinicians to have an understanding of the menstrual patterns of adolescent girls, the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal menstruation, and the skill to know how to evaluate the adolescent girl patient.
Young girls and their caretakers (eg, parents or guardians) frequently have difficulty assessing what constitutes normal menstrual cycles or patterns of bleeding. Patients and their caretakers may be unfamiliar with what is normal and patients may not inform their caretakers about menstrual irregularities or missed menses. In addition, a patient is often reluctant to discuss this topic with a caretaker, although the patient may confide in another trusted adult. Some adolescent girls may seek medical attention for cycle variations that actually fall within the normal range or may be unaware that their bleeding patterns are abnormal and may be attributable to significant underlying medical issues with the potential for long-term health consequences.
Clinicians also may be unsure about normal ranges for menstrual cycle length and the amount of menstrual bleeding during adolescence. Clinicians who are confident in their understanding of early menstrual bleeding patterns will be able to convey information to their patients more frequently and with less prompting; girls who have been educated about menarche and early menstrual patterns will experience less anxiety when they occur 1. By including an evaluation of the menstrual cycle as an additional vital sign, clinicians reinforce its importance in assessing overall health status for patients and caretakers. Just as abnormal blood pressure, heart rate, or respiratory rate may be key to diagnosing potentially serious health conditions, identification of abnormal menstrual patterns in adolescence may improve early identification of potential health concerns for adulthood.
It is important for clinicians to have an understanding of the menstrual patterns of adolescent girls, the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal menstruation, and the skill to know how to evaluate the adolescent girl patient. Menstrual abnormalities that suggest the need for further evaluation are listed in Box 3.
But we cannot talk about women' health in the Middle Ages without citing Trotula de Ruggiero from Salerno (11th century). While as a woman she could never become a magister, Trotula is considered the first female doctor in Christian Europe: she belonged to the ranks of famous women active in the Salerno School but discredited, among others, by Arnaldus of Villa Nova .
The scientific development does not mark a dramatic shift from a demonological vision of medicine, but progresses hand in hand with evolution of theories on exorcism. The written records tell us of several outbreaks of hysteria, the most famous of which is undoubtedly the one occurred in the village of Salem (Massachusetts) in 1692. The texts recall an episode in which a slave originally from Barbados talks about the prediction of fate and some girls creat a circle of initiation. This latter was formed by women yunger then twenty years of age and unmarried.The action of creating a circle of initiation was in itself an open violation of the precepts of the Puritans. 2b1af7f3a8